Diagnosis and treatment

Our vascular surgeons manage and advise on conditions involving all arteries and veins, except for those in the heart and the head, as well as some other related conditions. We work with all open and endovascular techniques (a form of surgery that accesses many parts of the body through major blood vessels).

We provide emergency and urgent carotid endarterectomy, working with our stroke service, and have close links with hospital's cardiac team.

Some of the conditions we see are listed below. You can read about the procedures our surgeons perform in the information leaflets in the downloads section.


  • Occlusive disease (blocked arteries)
  • Claudication (cramping pain in the muscles when walking)
  • Rest pain (pain in the toes or foot, mostly at night)
  • Non-healing wounds or gangrene
  • Mesenteric angina (blocked arteries in the bowel causing pain and weight loss)
  • Carotid artery (strokes or mini-strokes involving the brain or the eye)

Aneurysmal disease (enlarged arteries)

  • Thoracic aorta (chest)
  • Abdominal aorta (tummy)
  • Popliteal aneurysm (behind the knee)
  • Other peripheral aneurysms, such as femoral, subclavian or carotid
  • Visceral aneurysms (involve the smaller arteries to the organs in the abdomen) such as spleen, kidney, liver and bowel

Damaged arteries

  • Blunt injury (often associated with broken bones or dislocated joints)
  • Penetrating injury (involving glass knives and gunshots)
  • Needle injuries (blockage, leaking and infection)

Inflamed arteries

  • Large arteries (giant cell arteritis, Takayasu’s disease)
  • Medium arteries (Buerger’s disease)
  • Small arteries (rheumatoid vasculitis)

Compressed arteries

  • Popliteal entrapment (cramping pain in the calf when exercising)
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome (damaged internal lining in the artery going through the shoulder region)


  • Venous hypertension (high pressure)
  • Varicose veins
  • Phlebitis (tender, inflamed veins) and bleeding
  • Varicose ulcers and eczema

Complicated deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

  • Phlegmasia caerulia dolens (venous gangrene)
  • Caval obstruction (severe swelling of legs and arms and face)
  • Post phlebitic syndrome (severe unremitting venous hypertension)
  • Paget Schroedder syndrome (blocked vein in the arm casing swelling and discomfort)

Lymphatics (small vessels that ‘mop up’ excess fluid from the tissues)

  • Lymphoedema (persistent swelling of the ankle or arm)
  • Lymphatic leaks or cysts (fluid leaking out of the lymph vessels)

Hyperhidrosis (uncontrollable excess sweating)

Problems related to cervical or first rib compression

Occasionally the function of the nerves, artery or vein to your arm can be affected by one of your ribs compressing or irritating it, when your arm is in a certain position. This condition can sometimes be relieved by removing the rib.